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Humane Society Pet Nutrition Information Links:

Table of Contents:
Cats Cattle Dogs Goats Horses Pigs Sheep Other

Cats

SEE DOGS

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Freshness is an important part of palatability, and that is linked to packaging. The packaging with the foil-laminated oxygen barrier, many containing a zippered top in some form, can stay fresh 30 to 45 days after opening if you keep them sealed. Even though this kind of packaging is two to three times more expensive than a plain paper bag, it really does make a difference in freshness.

While keeping a dry food in a sealed container can also contribute to a longer shelf life, these containers must be kept immaculately clean.

If you are sealing food into a food-grade container that gets washed out on a regular basis, it will help keep a food fresher longer. if you don't wash the food container out well, over a period of time, fat adheres to the sides of the container, oxidizes and becomes rancid. Put a fresh bag of food in there and you contaminate it.
Source: Royal Canin USA in St. Peters, Mo.

Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats - Book
National Research Council, National Academies Press

Provides nutrient recommendations based on physical activity and stage in life, major factors that influence nutrient needs. It looks at how nutrients are metabolized in the bodies of dogs and cats, indications of nutrient deficiency, and diseases related to poor nutrition. The report provides a valuable resource for industry professionals formulating diets, scientists setting research agendas, government officials developing regulations for pet food labeling, and as a university textbook for dog and cat nutrition. It can also guide pet owners feeding decisions for their pets with information on specific nutrient needs, characteristics of different types of pet foods, and factors to consider when feeding cats and dogs.
Nutrient Requirements of
Dogs and Cats


Chicken Soup, Life’s Abundance, Natura Pet, Solid Gold Health,
Taste of The Wild

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_______________________________________________

Cattle

SEE SHEEP

Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle - Book
National Research Council, National Academies Press

Addresses important issues unique to dairy science-the dry or transition cow, udder edema, milk fever, low-fat milk, calf dehydration, and more. The also volume covers dry matter intake, including how to predict feed intake. It addresses the management of lactating dairy cows, utilization of fat in calf and lactation diets, and calf and heifer replacement nutrition. In addition, the many useful tables include updated nutrient composition for commonly used feedstuffs.
Nutrient Requirements
of Dairy Cattle


Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle - Book
National Research Council, National Academies Press

Popular handbooks provide comprehensive information by using extensive tabular data to illustrate the nutritional needs of animals.

Nutrient requirement standards for economically important domestic animals and laboratory animals have served as the foundation for animal feed formulas in the United States and abroad. The National Research Council (NRC) is the only nongovernmental organization in the United States that provides these kinds of data.
Nutrient Requirements
of Beef Cattle

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_______________________________________________

Dogs

Nutrient Requirements of Dogs - Book
National Research Council, National Academies Press

A summary of the minimum dietary requirements of essential nutrients for dogs. Common signs of deficiencies and toxicity are discussed, along with the criteria for arriving at energy and nutrient requirements. The new edition contains recommendations for available nutrient content of representative commercial dog foods expressed on the basis of metabolizable energy content, which should lead to greater uniformity in the nutritional adequacy of foods with varying caloric density and facilitate meaningful comparisons of such products.
Nutrient Requirements of Dogs


NUTRITION INFORMATION

Cats and Dogs that eats poorly is unhealthy and with age will begin to suffer from chronic diseases.

About 92% of pet owners in the United States feed their pets commercially prepared foods as the main part of the diet.

Cats and dogs are carnivores, or meat eaters. Their teeth are formed to pull flesh apart. They have simple stomachs and a short digestive tract, ideal for digesting meat. Cereal and vegetable proteins are not as readily digested by the cat or dog. While they have adapted to digesting these proteins, they have to eat a greater quantity to get the necessary nutrients. More food means more expense and more stool waste.

Below is a list of healthy Cat and Dog food available online and at local retailers

Chicken Soup, Life’s Abundance, Natura Pet, Solid Gold Health,
Taste of The Wild

There is no "best" food for all cats or dogs, as each dog is an individual, and what works well for one cat or dog may not work at all for another. In addition, it is better for a cat or dog to get a variety of foods, rather than just one food for its whole life. Feeding different commercial diets can help fill in nutritional gaps that a particular food or brand might have, as well as making it less likely that your cat or dog will develop food allergies. Rather than trying to find one "perfect" food, it would be better to find 3 or 4 different ones that your cat or dog does well with, and alternate between them, feeding one for three months or so, then switching to another. Be sure to make the switch gradually, five to ten days, to avoid digestive upset.

Many different factors influence food palatability.

In order to determine a dog or cat's food preferences, we have to understand several aspects of their lives, including environment, evolution and physiology. Cats are strict carnivores, eat 12 to 20 meals per day, feed during the day and night, eat small amounts at a time and eat alone. Dogs are omnivores, eat only one to three meals per day, feed only during the day, "glutton feed" (eat large amounts at one time) and eat socially.

Cats are more sensitive to bitter than to sweet tastes and prefer strong acid tastes, while dogs prefer sweet but don't easily detect bitter tastes and dislike acidic tastes, such as tomatoes and citrus fruits. Each of these factors affects an animal's acceptance of a particular food in a particular environment.

Various studies have evaluated the food preferences of dogs and cats based on their life experiences and dietary history. Pets may also have individual taste preferences. The pet will assess any post-ingestion effects of the food. Meat, Fat and Flavor As for the food itself, the presence and form of meat in pet food directly impacts palatability for most dogs and cats, who usually prefer the taste of raw or fresh meat over more processed foods.

Pets also find foods mixed with raw meat appealing. Typically, manufacturers coat kibble with fat and flavoring agents or palatants. Many dry foods use natural palatants containing organ meats and other flavors pets like, such as dry liver and salmon oil.
Source: Royal Canin USA in St. Peters, Mo.

Bloat, Gastric Dilatation-volvulus

A study published in the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association reports that dogs that are fed a larger volume of food per meal (based on the median number of cups fed per kilogram of body weight per meal) have a significantly increased risk of developing gastric dilatation-volvulus, commonly known as bloat.

For both large and giant breed dogs, the risk was highest for dogs fed a larger volume of food once daily, according to the study, conducted by researchers at Purdue University.

Bloat is distinguished by distention and twisting of the stomach, and is most common in large dogs with deep chests. The disease is a life-threatening emergency, and successful management depends on prompt diagnosis and appropriate medical and surgical treatment. Signs of bloat can include attempts to vomit, hypersalivation, abdominal distention or a state of shock.
Source: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, June 22, 2004.

The list of ingredients may be helpful, although it too has some short comings that limit its usefulness in evaluating pet foods. The ingredients are supposed to be listed in order of predominance by weight. However, this is an unenforceable regulation as it is generally impossible to determine the presence or absence of a specific ingredient, or the amount of each ingredient present, by examining or analyzing the finished product. A few generalities about the list of ingredients may be helpful as they may give an indication of the nutritional content and quality of the food. An animal protein should be one of the first two ingredients in a canned food, and one of the first three ingredients in a dry food. Canned dog foods fed long-term as the main diet should contain at least one cereal grain in the list of ingredients. Listing different forms of the same ingredient separately (e.g. ground corn, kibbled corn, flaked corn, etc.) suggests a purposeful misrepresentation of the product's ingredient contents.

The Ingredients Highlighted in Red are Undesirable Ingredient

Ground Yellow Corn is the entire corn kernel, ground or chopped. While the whole corn kernel is nutritious and supplies whole grain nutrition, corn is considered to be highly allergenic and difficult for dogs to digest.
Aflatoxin, a naturally occurring toxic chemical that comes from a fungus found on corn and other grains that causes severe liver damage in animals. Fungus levels increased due to the weather conditions the corn crop experienced during its growing season. These conditions included severe drought followed by high moisture.
Beef & Bone Meal is the rendered product from beef tissues, including bone, exclusive of any added blood, hair, hoof, horn, hide trimmings, manure, stomach and rumen contents, except in such amounts as may occur unavoidably in good processing practices. Beef & bone meal is a by-product made from beef parts, which are not suitable for human consumption. It can incorporate the entire cow, including the bone; although the quality cuts of meat are always removed before beef & bone meal is made.
Beef Tallow is obtained from the tissue of cattle in the commercial process of rendering. Although this is a very palatable source of fat, it is low in linoleic acid, which is necessary for skin and coat health. It is a low quality fat product.
Soybean Meal is the product obtained by grinding the flakes, which remain after removal of most of the oil from soybeans by a solvent or mechanical extraction process. Soybean meal is poor quality protein filler. Pet food companies can use the cheaper by-products of human food production, such as soybean meal, to boost protein numbers.
Animal Digest is a material, which results from chemical and/or enzymatic hydrolysis of clean and undecomposed animal tissue. Animal digest is a palatability enhancer, which can contain unpredictable parts from animals of unknown origin.
Animal Fat is obtained from the tissues of mammals and/or poultry in the commercial process of rendering or extracting. Animal fat is a by-product of meat meal processing. The origin of the contributing animals is never known, and the resulting oil is very low in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid that is important for skin and coat health.
BHA/BHT is short for Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT), both of which are chemical preservatives. BHA and BHT have been banned from human use in many countries because they are potentially cancer-causing agents. In the US, they are still permitted in pet foods.
Propylene Glycol is a chemical preservative used as a less-toxic version of automotive antifreeze.
Poultry By-Product Meal consists of the ground, rendered, clean parts of the carcasses of slaughtered poultry, such as necks, feet, undeveloped eggs, and intestines; exclusive of feathers except in such amounts as might occur unavoidably in good processing practices. This is a low-quality, inconsistent ingredient, with multiple organs used, constantly changing proportions, and questionable nutritional value. The origin can be any fowl (turkeys, ducks, geese, buzzards, etc.), instead of a single source, like chicken. Poultry by-product meal is much less expensive and less digestible than chicken meal.
Brewer's Rice is the small milled fragment of rice kernels that have been separated from the larger kernels of milled rice. Brewer's rice is a lower quality rice product that is missing many of the nutrients found in ground rice and ground brown rice. It is basically a waste product of the alcohol industry.
Corn Gluten Meal is the dried residue from corn after the removal of the larger part of the starch and germ, and the separation of the bran by the process employed in the wet milling manufacture of cornstarch or syrup, or by enzymatic treatment of the endosperm. Corn gluten in dog foods is cheap protein filler.
Dried Beet Pulp is the dried residue from sugar beets, which has been cleaned, freed from crowns, leaves, and sand, and extracted in the process of manufacturing sugar. Dried beet pulp is added to some pet foods to act as a fibrous stool hardener.
Meat By-Products consist of organs and parts either not desired, or condemned, for human consumption. This can include bones, blood, intestines, lungs, ligaments, heads, feet, and feathers.
Corn Syrup, Sugar, and Cane Molasses are sweeteners. They are usually added to lower quality foods to increase their appeal. Dietary sugars can aggravate health problems, including diabetes.
Vegetable Oil is the product of vegetable origin obtained by extracting the oil from seeds or fruits which are processed for edible purposes. The source vegetables for this oil (and their nutrient properties) are unknown.
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Goats

SEE SHEEP

Nutrient Requirements of Goats: Angora, Dairy, and Meat Goats - Book
National Research Council, National Academies Press

Popular handbooks provide comprehensive information by using extensive tabular data to illustrate the nutritional needs of animals.

Nutrient requirement standards for economically important domestic animals and laboratory animals have served as the foundation for animal feed formulas in the United States and abroad. The National Research Council (NRC) is the only nongovernmental organization in the United States that provides these kinds of data.
Nutrient Requirements
of Goats: Angora, Dairy,
and Meat Goats - Book



Carol Raczykowski
Reviewed by Dr. William Holleman

Goats require dietary protein, energy, fiber, water and essential macro- and micro-minerals nutrients. Balancing these needs is a matter of discovering what your goats need and in what quantities. Each geographic region may be different in its needs, and selenium is a good example of this. Some regions have high levels of selenium in their forages while others have too little. Your goats' nutritional management is very dependent on where you live.
Copper Toxicity in Pygmy Goats

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_______________________________________________

Horses

Nutrient Requirements of Horses - Book
National Research Council, National Academies Press

This update of a standard reference in horse care reflects the results of the decade of research on horse nutrition that has taken place since the previous edition. The volume presents equations for calculating daily requirements for major dietary components, tables of daily nutrient requirements calculated from the equations, tables of nutrient concentrations required in total diets, composition of feeds commonly used for horses, extensive references, and more. Plus, purchasers will receive a computer diskette with programs to calculate requirements for energy, protein, lysine, major minerals, and vitamin A.
Nutrient Requirements
of Horses

Horse Care and Feeding Guide

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Pigs

Nutrient Requirements of Swine - Book
National Research Council, National Academies Press

This essential reference presents new knowledge about the nutritional needs of swine that consider such factors as growth rate, carcass leanness, gender, health, environment, and repartitioning agents.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine covers:
Biological concepts that underlie nutrient needs for growth and function. New data on amino acid and energy requirements and the factors that shape them. New findings on lysine and the bioavailability of amino acids. New research results on minerals and vitamins. Nutrient composition of an expanded list of feedstuffs. The role of water in swine physiology, including factors that affect the quality of drinking water. Expanded tables of feed ingredients and their nutrient composition provide bioavailability estimates, fatty acid composition of fats typically used in swine diets, and important information on estimating the amino acid content of crude protein.

Nutrient Requirements
of Swine - Book

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_______________________________________________

Sheep

Sheep by Treasure Valley Sheep Producers

Nutrient Requirements of Sheep - Book
National Research Council, National Academies Press

The NRC has included information on macro- and micro-nutrient needs of sheep, how these needs were determined, and their sources in foodstuffs. Variation in quantity of specific nutrients in grains/grasses are also noted by location or area. Excellent manual for development of your own feeding program based on facts rather than folklore feeding practices.
Nutrient Requirements
of Sheep - Book



Whole yellow field corn Ruminant animals are designed to eat forages. They can meet all of their energy needs to grow, reproduce and stay healthy with feed that consist of 100% good quality roughage (alfalfa, grass-hay or good pasture). However, supplementation during certain periods (late gestation and lactation or for special projects like 4-H and FAA.) with concentrates (whole corn, barley, wheat, oats or other high carbohydrate feeds) may be in order.

Ruminant animals. have a stomach that is composed of four compartments - reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum. The rumen serves as a large fermentation vat in which bacteria and protozoa actually digest the cellulose (otherwise known as fiber) in the forage which mammals can not do. The ruminant adds saliva to this material as it chews and swallows and then rechews when it later regurgitates (belches up) this material. This process is called rumination. (People say the animal is chewing its cud.) The purpose of the saliva is to add bicarbonate molecules to the rumen which helps control the acidity of the fermentation that goes on in the rumen. Once the fiber is partially digested and the particle size of the material is right, the feed goes through the other stomachs including the abomesum, which is actually the true stomach, just like the stomach of other mammals.

There are two types of forages commonly fed to ruminants; legumes and grasses. Alfalfa, clovers, peas and beans are all legumes. These plants provide quite a bit more protein than other grasses and plants. Thus, for hay, at least, alfalfa is preferred because it is considered to be a higher quality feed. Protein is especially important in growing animals since protein can be likened to bricks, building blocks used to build tissue and bone. When purchasing feeds, protein content usually determines price. Even so alfalfa hay is generally the cheapest source of protein.

The only draw back to the protein in alfalfa is that it is not readily available to the young ruminant which really isn't a ruminant at all until it develops the rumen organisms it needs to digest cellulose. For the calf, this would be about 6-7 months of age, for the kid and lamb it would be 60-90 days of age. Milk protein (100% digestible) is definitely the highest quality of protein that can be fed to young stock, and soy protein becomes beneficial as the youngster gets a little older, 60 days for calves, 30 days for the smaller ruminants.

TDN which stands for total digestible nutrients is a measure of the energy present in the feed and is particularly important when trying to fatten animals or late in pregnancy as it protects against "ketosis" and "pregnancy toxemia,"- higher the value the better. Energy can be likened to gasoline. It runs the heart, lungs, brain, legs, etc. When the amount of energy is greater than the needs of the body, it is stored as fat.

Thus, energy and protein need to be balanced according to the individual. A growing animal, a pregnant animal or a lactating animal all need more protein than an adult who has weaned her offspring and isn't pregnant. A working animal (cutting horse, breeding bull or sheep dog) all need a lot of energy.—And of course, show animals and feedlot animals which should be fat, need a lot of energy.
Most forages, including alfalfa hay, have TDNs of around 50-55%. Grains and seeds on the other hand tend to have TDNs of 75-85%. Thus, when a high energy diet is required, one of the grains, often corn, is added to the diet.

The major problem feeding grains are their propensity for producing acid when fermented by the rumen organisms. When the amount of grain is relatively small, the bicarbonate in the saliva will buffer the acid produced and all is well. However, if the animal is suddenly exposed to a lot of grain all at once, the acid produced will overwhelm the buffering capacity of the saliva and the animal becomes sick or acidotic. This is a serious condition requiring veterinary help and has killed many an animal. However, grain can be increased by small increments over time and the rumen organisms will adapt and not produce so much acid.

Other nutrients besides protein and energy, (there are a total of 5) that need consideration are minerals, vitamins and water. Minerals are divided into macro minerals which are measured in grams or ozs and microminerals, measured in parts per million (ppm). Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are macrominerals and are very important for the production of bone and milk. Alfalfa hay has a calcium content of 1.4% but only 0.23%. phosphorus so it is a good supplier of calcium. Grains, on the other hand, have calcium contents of 0.1% while the phosphorus content is 0.4%. So, grains are better suppliers of P. For the best utilization of both calcium and phosphorus the over all Ca:P ratio should be 2.5 to 1. Keeping these minerals balanced can prevent urolithiasis (stones) in steers, bulls, wethers, rams and bucks.

A good trace mineral salt generally supplies all of the needed microminerals although microminerals needs differ according to the species of animals. Almost all animals need more copper than sheep. It is very easy to give sheep too much copper. Make sure that there is no added copper in a trace mineral salt that is going to be fed to sheep.

All animals need selenium. Selenium is deficient in many parts of the country. In those cases animal owners should make sure there is at least 90 ppm of selenium in the mix.

Two important vitamin needs are Vitamin A and Vitamin D. Vitamin A is essential for keeping the skin, hooves and interior body linings in good repair. It is needed in larger amounts by young growing animals, lactating and pregnant animals. It can be supplied by any nice green forage and green leafy hay that was put up within the last year. Vitamin A is stored in the liver and animals on pasture during the summer usually store enough to make it through the winter, even if feed is low in vitamin A.

Vitamin D is needed for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine and for the building and repair of bones. The action of sunlight on the skin of animals can convert certain compounds in the skin into vitamin D. During the summer when animals are outside in the sun, they will make all the vitamin D they need. When animals are kept inside most of the time, or they live in rainy cloudy conditions (western Oregon for example), vitamin D should be supplemented. Nice green leafy hay that has been sun cured is also high in vitamin D.

Vitamin E and selenium are co-workers. Together they are important in the production of immunity against diseases, certain enzymes and the integrity of muscle and red blood cells. Deficiencies of these two cause poor growth, poor health and in severe cases, white muscle disease. Vitamin E is also high in green leafy plants and hays, but is not stored in the body. If poor quality hay is being used during the winter, vitamin E should be supplemented.

Water makes up the fifth essential nutrient. Adequate clean water should always be available. Ruminants require large amounts of water daily to keep the contents of their rumens in a liquid phase. Otherwise, the bacteria can not optimally mix with the feed. As a matter of fact, when water is restricted, ruminants will restrict the amount of dry matter they take in. Thus, feed efficiency and gain will be markedly affected. Lack of water also encourages the formation of bladder stones in the male.

Alfalfa and corn make up the most common ruminant diets, although any forage and any grain can be substituted depending on availability and price. Field or dent corn: is commonly fed whole to small ruminant as they are more apt to chew their feed than cattle. Cattle which tend to swallow their food whole, do not digest whole grain well and they pass through in the manure. Yellow dent corn is dried in the field, creating a "dent" at the top of the kernel. About 90% of it is used for animal feed as it has a very thick outer skin that doesn't soften much even if you cook it for hours.

Bovatec, a coccidiostat, limestone to supply calcium, vitamin A, D, or E, thiamine, minerals, salt, bicarbonate, antibloat compounds, antibiotics or other supplementation may also be included in diets depending on the ratio of forage to grain and the current disease problems being experience by the animals.

Cost is a factor in making a farming operation profitable. Grain prices as of 01/12/2006
Whole Corn Cost is $7.80 per 100 lbs.
Cracked Corn Cost is $17.98 per 100 lbs.
4 Way-Mix with Rolled Corn Cost is $16.38 per 100 lbs.

The following table shows the dramatic nutritional difference between 1 cup of WHOLE GRAIN yellow cornmeal and 1 cup of degermed yellow corn meal.
WHOLE GRAIN Provide 100% - 300% More Food Value.

Nutrient Whole Grain Grain Degermed
Iron 4.2 mg 1.5 mg
Magnesium 155 mg 55.2 mg
Phosphorus 294 mg 116 mg
Potassium 350 mg 224 mg
Zinc 2.2 mg 1 mg
Copper 0.2 mg 0.1 mg
Manganese 0.6 mg 0.2 mg
Selenium 19 mcg 11 mcg
Thiamin 0.5 mg 0.2 mg
Riboflavin 0.3 mg 0.1 mg
Niacin 4.4 mg 1.4 mg
Vitamin E 0.5 mg 0.2 mg
Feed Cost
per 100 lbs.
$7.80 $16.38
Adjusted for
Feed Value
x1 x2.5
Real Cost
of Feed
$7.80 $40.95
Nutrient Source: USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory
Feed Prices 01/12/2006: Zamzows, Boise, ID and WSI, Caldwell, ID

Obviously for the small ruminants the best buy is whole corn but for cattle who would not digest it, the 4-way mix would probably be the better choice.

All true grains have the same basic structure. The fruit tissue, or seed coat, consists of a layer of epidermis and several thin inner layers, which together are a few cells thick. Underneath the seed coat, one to four cells thick, is the aleurone layer. Loaded with fiber, minerals, oil, phytonutrients, protein and vitamins, these layers are collectively referred to as bran. Bran surrounds the endosperm, which stores most of the protein and carbohydrate, and makes up most of the kernel's volume. Against the endosperm is the scutellum, which absorbs, digests and transfers food from the endosperm to the embryo, or germ, found at the base of the grain. The germ, the grain's smallest part, contains the most nutrition as a concentrated source of B vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients and vitamin E. Whole yellow corn is also an excellent source of vitamin A. Whole yellow corn contain carotene, one of the yellow pigments, which is converted into vitamin A by the ruminant animals.

Cylinder mills grind grains with rigid or smooth pairs of cylinders that rotate at high speed. Grains are forced between the cylinders which grind and tear the kernels instantly. In the grinding process, a great deal of heat is generated. cylinder mills heat grains to 150 degrees F While a Stone Mill can grind grains at temperatures below 90 degrees F. At just 119 degrees F, most of the healthful live enzymes in the meal and flour are eliminated. At higher temperatures, many of the nutrients in the meal are destroyed. In addition, cylinder milling overexpose meal to air. This causes oxidization, which leads to the rancidity of oils in the grains. The most widely used flour mills in operation today, are even hotter and faster than cylinder mills. High velocity steel hammer heads smash and powder whole grains at ultra-high speed. This method destroys more nutrients.

© Dr. Marie Bulgin: Sponsored by Treasure Valley Sheep Producers

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_______________________________________________

Other

Other Books by National Research Council, National Academies Press

Diagnosis and Control of Johne's Disease - Book

Johne's Disease is a chronic, progressive intestinal disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) that affects primarily ruminant animals. In recent decades there has been growing concern over the lack of effective control of this disease and questions have arisen regarding the possibility that Map infection could be a cause of some cases of Crohn's disease in humans.
Diagnosis and Control
of Johne's Disease - Book



Effect of Environment on Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals - Book

Only recently have objective bases been developed to guide livestock producers in altering nutrient inputs in response to environmental change for optimizing productivity or economic return. Existing nutrition-environment models are rudimentary but can be used to compare the cost of extra feed to maintain body temperature in cold weather versus the cost of providing a warm building, bedding, or other alternatives. Such models include the ''operational characteristic'' of growth for beef cattle, swine, and poultry related to feed energy levels (Teter et al., 1973), the "lower critical temperature" model for beef cattle to estimate lower critical temperatures in still air and wind (Webster, BOSCOM" model for growth of beef cattle during the finishing 1974).
Effect of Environment on Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals - Book



Livestock - Book Agricultural techniques used to increase production of cattle, sheep, and other major species have actually threatened the future genetic diversity of livestock populations, particularly in the Third World. This volume explores the importance of animal genetic diversity and presents a blueprint for national and international efforts to conserve animal genetic resources. It also evaluates genetic techniques useful in conservation programs and provides specific recommendations for establishing data bases and conducting research.
Livestock - Book


Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future - Book

Microlivestock is a term coined for species that are inherently small as well as for breeds of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs that are less than about half the size of the most common breeds. These miniature animals are seldom considered in the broad picture of livestock development, but they seem to have a promising future, especially in developing nations or wherever land is scarce.

This book raises awareness of the potential of these small species, including microcattle, microsheep, various poultry, rabbits, rodents, deer, antelope, and lizards.
Microlivestock



Mineral Tolerance of Animals - Book

Excess minerals in the diet and water of animals can have an adverse effect on animal health, consumers, and the environment. Preventing unsafe mineral exposure is a fundamental part of animal nutrition and management.
Mineral Tolerance
of Animals - Book



Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals - Book

Mineral Tolerance
of Domestic Animals - Book


Nutritional Energetics of Domestic Animals and Glossary of Energy Terms - Book

Nutritional Energetics
of Domestic Animals - Book


Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes - Book

Nutrient Requirements
of Mink and Foxes - Book


Nutrient Requirements of Poultry - Book

The general considerations concerning individual nutrients and water has been greatly expanded and includes, for the first time, equations for predicting the energy value of individual feed ingredients from their proximate composition. This volume includes the latest information on the nutrient requirements of meat- and egg-type chickens, incorporating data on brown-egg strains, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail.
Nutrient Requirements
of Poultry - Book



Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits - Book

Nutrient Requirements
of Rabbits - Book


Ruminant Nitrogen Usage - Book

The latest research on protein absorption by ruminants and takes a look at the calculation of optimum nutrient requirements, including bacterial digestion, in the calculations. It also describes the parameters of nitrogen conversion in the ruminant and examines the different kinds of protein found in animal feed stuffs.

Ruminant Nitrogen
Usage - Book


Vitamin Tolerance of Animals - Book

Many feedstuffs and forages do not provide the dietary vitamins necessary for optimum growth and development, making supplementation necessary. This volume offers a practical, well-organized guide to safe levels of vitamin supplementation in all major domestic species, including poultry, cattle, sheep, and fishes. Fourteen essential vitamins are discussed with information on requirements in various species, deficiency symptoms, metabolism, indications of hypervitaminosis, and safe dosages.
Vitamin Tolerance
of Animals - Book


Underutilized Resources as Animal Feedstuffs - Book

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Underutilized Resources
as Animal Feedstuffs - Book







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